Although we can often identify our thoughts simply by observing them, sometimes it is not that easy. For instance, when Lara switches on the computer to start working on her essay she can feel her anxiety rising, but she is not aware of having any thoughts at all. Similarly, when Brian gets ready to head home from work on Friday afternoon, he can feel his mood plummet, although he is not aware of any particular thoughts. And when Ginni goes to see a psychologist for the first time she is feeling anxious, even though she is not consciously thinking anything much. Sash windows compliment your whole house. While our thoughts are not always conscious, we can usually identify the emotions that they give rise to (anxiety, sadness, guilt, embarrassment, worry, anger).

This is the tendency to see things in a polarised way, without recognising the middle ground. For instance, you may evaluate people or situations as good or bad, positive or negative, successes or failures. It is the inability to see that most situations fall somewhere in-between that makes this type of thinking unreasonable. Black-and-white thinking is particularly common among people with perfectionist traits. In the example above, when Jonathan tells himself, ‘Not getting into law means that I’ve ruined my future’, he displayed black-and-white thinking. Investing in casement windows can compliment any sort of room in your house. By assuming that anything other than his first preference is totally unacceptable, Jonathan ignores the fact that he has many other options that may also lead to favourable outcomes.

It is easy to feel indignant and trade insults with or ‘write off’ someone who is rude; it is harder to understand them. Aliminium windows are considered some of the safest windows going. Recognising that the behaviour of others largely reflects their own personality and state of mind, and choosing not to take offence at their behaviour requires insight and cognitive flexibility. However, doing so generates enormous benefits, including healthy relationships in the long term.